The French Revolution actualised the Enlightenment's greatest intellectual breakthrough: detaching the political from the theocratic.
After India and China, Indonesia was the biggest new nation-state to emerge in the mid-twentieth century.
As in the early 20th century, the elemental forces of globalisation have unravelled broad solidarities and loyalties.
As the 19th century progressed, Europe's innovations, norms and categories came to achieve a truly universal hegemony.
Certainly, imperial power is never peaceably acquired or maintained.
Devout Anatolian masses rising from poverty have transformed Turkey politically and economically.
Enlightenment values of individual freedom are manifested best in individual acts of criticism and defiance.
Gandhi's ideas were rooted in a wide experience of a freshly globalized world.
Gandhi, brought out of his semirural setting and given a Western-style education, initially attempted to become more English than the English.
Governments everywhere that are unable to guarantee equitable growth and social welfare have suffered a fatal decay of legitimacy.
Happily, financial capitalism and free trade have not done away with national languages and literatures, as Marx rather too blithely hoped.
I started out as a novelist and wrote several novels before deciding to publish one, and I fully intend to go back to the form.
If your writing collides with the conventional wisdom, there's going to be some kind of friction.
In 1980, shortly before my 11th birthday, I wrote my first essay in English.
In a democratic age, you can't buck demography - except through civil war.
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